E-Commerce or Marketplace?

Beberapa waktu yang lalu pernah ada yang share di media sosial Twitter artikel tentang e-Commerce Indonesia di tahun 2018. Artikel dapat dirujuk di sini. Beberapa insight menarik coba saya capture sebagai berikut:

Ketika saya share ulang di grup WA rekan-rekan kuliah dulu, ada yang berkomentar “Ini e-commerce atau marketplace sih? Banyak yg salah kaprah 😅”. Sepertinya menarik untuk kita bahas, coba kita telaah lagi pengertian dari masing-masing, dan saya pun membuka buku-buku kuliah kembali.

Dave Chaffey dalam bukunya, E-Business & E-Commerce Management menuliskan bahwa e-commerce, atau dalam bahasa Indonesia sering diterjemahkan sebagai perdagangan elektronik, secara sederhana dapat didefinisikan menjadi setiap pertukaran informasi secara elektronik (utamanya informasi keuangan) antara pelaku bisnis dengan pihak ketiganya (entah itu konsumen maupun supplier-nya)

Electronic commerce (e-commerce) is often thought simply to refer to buying and selling using the Internet; people immediately think of consumer retail purchases from companies such as Amazon. But e-commerce involves much more than electronically mediated financial transactions between organizations and customers. E-commerce should be considered as all electronically mediated transactions between an organization and any third party it deals with. By this definition, non-financial transactions such as customer requests for further information would also be considered to be part of e-commerce.

Kalakota and Whinston (1997) refer to a range of different perspectives for e-commerce:
1. A communications perspective – the delivery of information, products or services or
payment by electronic means.
2. A business process perspective – the application of technology towards the automation of
business transactions and workflows.
3. A service perspective – enabling cost cutting at the same time as increasing the speed and
quality of service delivery.
4. An online perspective – the buying and selling of products and information online.

The UK government also used a broad definition when explaining the scope of e-commerce to industry:
“E-commerce is the exchange of information across electronic networks, at any stage in the supply chain, whether within an organization, between businesses, between businesses and consumers, or between the public and private sector, whether paid or unpaid. (Cabinet Office, 1999)”

These definitions show that electronic commerce is not solely restricted to the actual buying and selling of products, but also includes pre-sale and post-sale activities across the supply chain.
E-commerce is facilitated by a range of digital technologies that enable electronic communications. These technologies include Internet communications through web sites and e-mail as well as other digital media such as wireless or mobile and media for delivering digital television such as cable and satellite

Lalu bagaimana dengan marketplace? Masih di buku yang sama, kita dapatkan penjelasan bahwa marketplace (semacam eBay) hanyalah salah satu dari online intermediary sebagai salah satu komponen dari e-commerce. Intermediary merupakan bagian yang menghubungkan antara supplier dengan konsumennya (untuk menjadi catatan kita bahwa jenis lini bisnis di dunia ini sangat banyak, tidak hanya barang retail yang sampai ke tangan kita).

Ngomong-ngomong soal intermediary, era internet cukup unik. Setelah teknologi/internet memotong adanya channel distribusi sehingga memungkinkan konsumen untuk berkomunikasi secara langsung ke supplier (digambarkan sebagai company dalam gambar di bawah), atau dikenal sebagai disintermediation. Internet pula lah yang kemudian memungkinkan terjadinya reintermediation, adanya komponen sebagai penghubung (pihak ketiga / broker) antara konsumen dengan supplier.

Kembali kalau kita baca informasi mengenai trend e-commerce Indonesia 2018 di atas, bisa kita lihat bahwa sampel yang diteliti adalah semua platform jual beli (marketplace) seperti: tokopedia, bukalapak, shopee, dll. Dan setelah adanya penjelasan mengenai e-commerce dan marketplace, alangkah baiknya kita menggunakan terminologi yang tepat. E-Commerce ga cuma ngomongin yang jualan ke kita doank. 🙂

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